The Centre de Création Industrielle and Exhibitions (1968-1992): Successive Recentrings…

A French Affair


En 1968, le CCI est une institution naissante aux ambitions profondes : urbanisme, design graphique et communication visuelle, design industriel, computation, problématiques culturelles et de société, les « fonctions collectives » seront son domaine. Les disciplines de la conception industrielle ont enfin leur lieu. Sa vie jusqu’en 1992 et sa fusion avec les services du Centre national d’art et de culture Georges-Pompidou (Beaubourg) sont toutefois marquées par des audaces et différents traumatismes. Cette histoire et ces silences font du CCI une institution largement méconnue. Un angle mort des études historiques. Pourtant c’est une des seules qui en France s’occupa réellement de design. Le CCI a par exemple édité pour la première fois de grands textes fondamentaux comme « La Mécanisation au pouvoir » de Sigfried Giedion (1948), « Nouvelles de la métropole froide. Design et seconde modernité » d’Andrea Branzi (1992) ou, avec les Éditions de Minuit, une revue comme « Traverses »(1975-1994) dans laquelle figurent Jean Baudrillard, Michel de Certeau, Paul Virilio, Bernard Stiegler, Louis Marin, etc. François Mathey, conservateur, et François Barré, haut fonctionnaire et responsable d’institutions culturelles, sont les figures tutélaires du CCI, qui investit tour à tour des locaux au sein de l’Union centrale des arts décoratifs (UCAD ou Arts déco), puis au sein du Centre Georges Pompidou. Le Centre innove en créant des services dédiés à la vulgarisation scientifique et à la médiation vers le grand public, en favorisant le développement de certaines unités, que l’on dirait aujourd’hui « de recherche », en explorant les nouvelles techniques de communication et la programmation par exemple. Le CCI a mené une très large politique d’exposition dès sa naissance et la recherche proposée ici s’organise autour de cas d’étude d’expositions, en partant à chaque fois des reportages photographiques réalisés lors de ces manifestations et conservés à la Bibliothèque Kandinsky MNAM/CCI ou à la Bibliothèque des Arts décoratifs.


The birth, life and “death” of the Centre de Création Industrielle represent a key historical episode in the development of design in France. Resulting from a somewhat typically French process of slow gestation involving government and professional bodies, lasting fifteen to twenty years, the cci, when it finally came into being in 1968, had a remit embracing urbanism, graphic design and visual communication, industrial design, computing, and cultural and societal problematics. “Collective functions” would be its field. At last, the disciplines of industrial design had a dedicated space. François Mathey, curator,1 and François Barré, a senior civil servant at the head of cultural institutions, were the tutelary figures of the CCI, which at its peak would have up to eighty permanent collaborators,2 and was headquartered, successively at the Union Centrale des Arts Décoratifs (UCAD or Arts Déco), offices in Rue des Francs-Bourgeois, and the Centre Georges Pompidou.3

From the outset, the CCI was an organisation with protean interests, making it difficult simply to list their directions and occupations. What with the product index, rather like what was already being done in the UK,4 reports and the construction of an index of professionals, a role in strategies for constructing international bodies,5 the creation of a publishing department, and a new journal, Traverses, published from 1975 with Éditions de Minuit, and finally, exhibitions, which were an important activity, where should a historical and scholarly study begin?

This multiplicity of activities and the integration6 and, finally, “absorption” of this institution by another one (MNAM – Centre Georges Pompidou) in 1992, mean that certain aspects of the CCI remain little known. It could even be said that waving the red rag of the CCI’s tumultuous existence is one of the best ways of delaying its scholarly study and making it a blind spot of historical studies. Finally, from a retrospective viewpoint, it can be hard to see how such a view came about. In fact, the reason is simple. In 1976, by a decree of 27 January that year, the CCI becomes one of the departments of the Centre Pompidou, the Musée National d’Art Moderne being the other one, this being the culmination of a process anticipated in 1970.7 It then had a space of 4,000 square metres, of which 800 were exhibition galleries8 (one covering topical issues, another, on the ground floor, dealing with retrospectives), a current affairs room with documentation for the general public, a specialist library and a multimedia library, as well as a documentation service on the first floor that could carry out research by request. It could also, if needed, use communal spaces in the Centre, that is, the Forum and the Grande Galerie on the fifth floor, and had as many as nine departments (in 1978).9 It was therefore a significant structure within the French system for supporting a cultural policy of design. The expansion of the CCI between 1968 and 1978 and its subsequent “shrinking” from 1983 – when it was reorganised into five departments10 – to 1992, illustrate how various, often political and territorial issues and emotions shaped the development of a new discipline.11 Books like L’Utopie Beaubourg vingt ans après12 and Le Centre Pompidou. Trente ans d’histoire13 offer a more or less precise account of this path, but recent years have seen the appearance of specialist and more focused studies. Brigitte Gilardet, Caroll Maréchal and Clémence Imbert all present articles here deriving from their respective researches, offering an approach to the institution and some of its protagonists. All three14 explore a direction by taking a more or less direct interest in the same subject: exhibitions.

Reasons for the programme

In 1960, Nikolaus Pevsner sat on the expert committee for the exhibition Aux sources du xxe siècle. Les arts en Europe de 1884 à 1914 15 held later that year at the Musée d’Art Moderne. The sixth in a series of shows begun in 1954 under the auspices of the Council of Europe, it articulated an exploration of the idea of a European history of the arts. Pevsner, the first historian of design, also contributed to the catalogue, and wrote to its editorial coordinator as follows:

I would ask you to kindly reread the introduction by M. Cassou and count the number of times he refers to France compared to the other countries. […] However, I am not complaining about the seeming preponderance of French painting, for I consider that to be justified. What you do not know, is that the same preponderance exists in the case of Anglo-American architecture and design. […] The particular situation of architecture and design in Great Britain and the United States has been completely recognised by the members of the exhibition’s expert committee and accepted by M. Cassou. […] international research in the field of architecture and design in the period we are talking about has begun in Anglo-American circles and has been initiated in Germany only very recently. I do not think a serious beginning has been made in Italy and in France. That might not be a coincidence.16

Pevsner is acerbically drawing attention here to the oft-emphasised French backwardness in matters of national historiography, but also, in fact, internationally. For our part, we may note the extent to which he sees texts and exhibitions as the place where this research and this knowledge are applied.

Exhibitions are now a recognised subject of historical study. The Centre Pompidou itself has taken part in a major research programme on this theme17 and the tendency has been an international one for some ten years now, as can be seen from the fact that MoMA has put its archives online and is running an oral history programme.18 Beyond, or before this institution dedicated to design, we thus face the question of exhibitions in design and of design and of what or in what sense these exhibitions constitute a representative point of entry into the activities, actions and problematics of the CCI itself.

Now, two facts emerge in the history of the CCI’s exhibitions: the first is that there are some big exhibitions for which it has not received credit in recent studies by foreign researchers. Here we may simply mention Bunker Archéologie (1976, at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs) and Les Immatériaux (at the Pompidou Centre, 1985). This misappraisal is no doubt due to the lack of scholarly work around the CCI – despite the studies that have been carried out. On that account, it makes sense to approach the CCI from this angle. The second is that the production of over 248 exhibitions in twenty-four years, a rate of about ten a year, implies an input of intellectual and operational energy that one might expect to flow into the structure’s other activities. In any case, it is a plausible hypothesis.

Finally, the CCI embodied an illogical or paradoxical position that consisted in putting on exhibitions while claiming to be an “anti-museum.” This double position can be articulated around two facts: the CCI did not constitute a design collection and therefore excluded the main patrimonial activity and historic mission of museums, whether of art or applied arts. But by asserting a cultural position, acting as a resource centre, it placed its mission within those of the modern museum in which the simple presentation of the discipline was broadened to include the exploration of its implications in terms of sociology, science, trends and research. A programme was established as early as 1970. It remained fairly faithful to the original direction, with one or two inflections over time. There were two axes: the exhibition of tendencies and researches carried out in the fields of design and the presentation of thematic selections of products.19 While the second axis would gain in importance, the first was consistently maintained over the years. Exhibitions like Préparation du repas (1971-73)20 (Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 and Des objets sans problèmes (1985)21 stand as evidence.

In this it was either innovative, or in phase with other organisms of its kind abroad, such as the Design Centre in England.

In this sense, the research programme did not concentrate uniquely on the artefacts exhibited – the only exception being an article on the Morris columns in Paris-Moscou,22 which in any case were considered for their qualities as display objects – but more on the conditions and contexts behind the exhibitions. The point was to examine the forms of one of the CCI’s missions and to implicitly describe the history of the institution without writing institutional history.

Fragmentary approaches for de-fragmented knowledge

The idea of a three-year programme that would make it possible, with students and designers, on a Masters 2 research programme – some of them now working on theses – to study specific cases therefore seemed valid, as did the position – a perfectly classical one if one thinks of architecture – of suggesting that they become the historians of their discipline.


A reasonably systematic exploration of CCI exhibitions would therefore make an interesting starting point, for several reasons:

  • The availability of a large number of photographs allowed a department for design teaching and research to observe, through one of the designer’s activities (display), the life of an institution dedicated to design. The photographic records of CCI exhibitions put online by the Bibliothèque Kandinsky under the responsibility of Stéphanie Rivoire sometimes offers, not only views of the galleries, but also photographs of preparations, inaugurations, etc., affording a visual perception of the exhibition process as a whole.

  • Online it is possible to view 16,323 digitised photographs out of the 26,343 accessible in the whole collection.23 In order to complete the information it is also essential to visit the MNAM archives in order to consult the exhibition files which contain a great variety of material. The MAD archives, too, have substantial files.

  • The number of exhibitions organised (more than 248) and the variety of the themes explored should logically reflect the institution’s diversity and/or vitality.

  • Finally, in a somewhat caricatural way (for the question is more subtle than that), for an institution that was born in a museum, that of the Union des Arts Décoratifs and “died” through a museum (MNAM), it made sense to consider the stakes at issue in an exhibition.24

Between 2017 and 2019 the following projects were therefore put in place around the “Ens-BK CCI-Design-Display” programme:25 a seminar on the exhibition, a study day and articles by some forty Master’s students, each one focusing on a particular case study, and three international publications produced at the end of the year with a selection of articles and, afterwards, an oral defence.26

It was therefore around a core constituted by a score of articles selected year after year that the current line was organised. It is reinforced by five articles by researchers – Laurence Mauderli, Catherine Geel and, already mentioned, Clémence Imbert, Caroll Maréchal and Brigitte Gilardet.


The variety of the exhibitions at the CCI allows us to observe diverse modalities. The sample comprises:

  • Exhibitions about the disciplines of graphic design or object design, space design, architecture and urbanism – all the fields explored by the CCI, with the particularity of sometimes comparing different approaches as in 1970 with La rue, l’espace collectif, ses signes, son mobilier27 or of fitting into the broader projects of Pontus Hultén28 such as Paris-Moscou in 1979.29

  • A diversity of subjects: design is sometimes approached historically,30 in terms of its topicality,31 or in terms of intra-disciplinary specialities,32 or from the point of view of economic,33 social34 or ethnographic35 questions, and from the viewpoint of the technological development of modern societies36 or conceptual constructions.37

  • A variety of formats: between large-scale productions38 and small shows, the CCI applied different systems: touring shows,39 studio shows,40 and spectaculars.41 It hosted ready-mounted exhibitions and others specially conceived by foreign bodies such as the Council of Industrial Design (CoID),42 showcased monographic displays43 or offered the opportunity to exhibit singular, intellectually significant researches such as Bunker Archéologie, which marked the conclusion of Paul Virilio’s research into the Atlantic Wall in 1976,44 or again Les Immatériaux, that famous invitation to philosopher Jean-François Lyotard accompanied by Thierry Chaput in 1985.45

Finally, it should be emphasised that some “important” or “landmark” exhibitions have not been analysed. Le futur est peut-être passé46 (Fig. 5), which presented the installation The Period of Great Contaminations: Housing Unit for 2 People (1971) (Fig. 4 and Fig. 6) made by Gaetano Pesce for the famous exhibition Italy: The New Domestic Landscape (MoMA, 1972),47 and also the study by Ezio Manzini La Matière de l’invention48 (Fig. 7), which gave rise to a famous publication by Éditions du Centre Pompidou in its “Inventaire” collection in 1989.49 Like the history of certain exhibitions that are problematic articulations of the CCI’s history in its relations with its host institution or with the outside world, as in Architectures marginales aux USA50 (Fig. 8 and Fig. 9) and Culture de l’objet, objet de la culture51 (Fig. 10, Fig. 11, Fig. 12 and Fig. 13), it has not been covered. Finally, it remains to reassess some fairly remarkable exhibitions dealing with episodes as important in the history of design as Lazlo Moholy-Nagy,52 Les Shakers : Vie communautaire et design avant Marx et le Bauhaus53 (Fig. 14 et Fig. 15), and Du Bauhaus à l’industrie, Wilhelm Wagenfeld, objets quotidiens54 (Fig. 16 and Fig. 17), and L’École d’Ulm. Architecture, communication visuelle, design,55 whose subtle catalogue coordinated by Claude Eveno was for many years one of the only ways to begin to learn about the HfG, and even exhibitions whose subjects resonate with the fundamentally topical subjects of inclusion and new energies, such as Différences. Indifférence ? Handicaps et vie quotidienne56 (Fig. 18) and Énergies libres57 (Fig. 19, Fig. 20 and Fig. 21). There are, then, fields of study that the line is ready to welcome.

Revelatory journeys…


These studies of CCI exhibitions have kept some of their promises. Certain riches become evident:

  • The list of emblematic designers and contributors directly involved in just a score of exhibitions is relatively impressive: Archigram,58 Charles Eames, Verner Panton, Joe Colombo and Roger Tallon,59 Ettore Sottsass, Gae Aulenti, Achille Castiglioni, Jean Widmer,60 Roman Cieslewicz,61 Grapus,62 Italo Rota,63 Vincent Perrottet, Pierre di Sciullo64 and Haus-Rucker-Co.65 We even observe a busy Pierre Boulez passing through on two occasions, in relation to musical or budgetary matters.66 As regards theoreticians and thinkers, we see Paul Virilio and François Lyotard getting involved in exhibitions where they played a very particular curatorial role, and, when it comes to design, we find theoreticians of some standing such as Abraham Moles and Henri Van Lier.

  • In the articles we also come across figures of lesser international stature but of structural importance on the French scene, such as Raymond Guidot, Thierry Chaput, Gilles de Bure, Jean-Claude Maugirard, and Jean-Paul Pigeat, whose later sequences are not without interest for our study. Pigeat is indeed the subject of an article67 by virtue of the number and specific typologies of the exhibitions he curated. We can observe institutional connections, exchanges and synergies, as with the Institut de l’Environnement.68

  • The number of women who curated or organised exhibitions and are now precious witnesses on historical questions is revelatory: Yolande Amic, the energetic alter ego of François Mathey, and then later Margo Rouard, Hélène Laroche, Marsha Emmanuel, Joëlle Malichaud, etc. Françoise Jollant, who was hired more or less with the creation of the CCI in mind, and who for a while shared the office of Claudius-Petit at the Pavillon de Marsan, speaks of a glass ceiling.69 This was the main reason why, with regret, she left the CCI in 1986.

  • There is no systematic or sampled study of the objects or artefacts exhibited, although such lists are occasionally included in certain exhibition files.


This is the study of exhibitions which makes it possible to compare and cross-check elements. There are many avenues still to explore, and first among them is the synergies, for example between exhibitions and other CCI services or activities, when, as Clémence Imbert notes: “At the Centre Pompidou, the CCI brought with it a theoretically very solid conception of the virtues of interdisciplinarity.”70

As of 1973, when the Centre was both established and had prospects of expansion, its directors had authority over four services:

  • The exhibitions and events service, which managed temporary and touring exhibitions – which, again, were less convincing than had been expected –, the permanent gallery, and the technical resources. From consulting the administrative archives it is clear that it was the directors of the CCI who validated the exhibition programme.

  • The Studies section, which was in charge of selecting products, programming, economic studies and product information. This is the service that produced the handwritten product cards whose computerisation appears to have been quite a challenge, necessitating fourteen documentarists for results that proved rather modest. What unanalysed exhibitions – such as Préparation du repas71 for example – reflected this or represented this important aspect of the CCI’s information policy and mediation of consumption? In 1975 this service was subdivided with the appearance of a division centring on urbanism and public space.

  • The Documentation, bringing together books and journals, production design and multimedia libraries. The slide library was created in 1974. Renamed Centre de Documentation in 1986 and computerised, the space held 13,000 books and 300 French and international periodicals and constituted what, at the time, was a rare resource for the subject.

  • The publications department (Éditions), which managed the documentary and audio-visual products, books of slides, catalogues and books.

It seems that certain synergies did not work, or were not required. Here we come to a number of hypotheses that remain to be explored.

French questions?

In France, and particularly at the cci, the exhibition form, which is a locus of dissemination and mediation, for the transmission of ideas and notions, was a veritable terrain for the elaboration and constitution of knowledge of both the history of design and the current state of research into its disciplines.

The exhibitions at the CCI bring together modalities that still pertain today: big-budget popular exhibitions, societal exhibitions with ethno-anthropological themes, didactic explorations, or short, precise studies in the topical spaces, experiments or tours. Its economic models, too, are relevant: production, coproduction, visitor reception. They also present a wide variety of artefacts, both everyday and remarkable objects, from rough models to production runs. Although panel displays continued to be used, they offered a great variety of display methods, all the way to the exhibition as “unidentified objects” in which visitors might get lost in a hanging grid or be invited to go up to the roof of the museum. If working on the exhibitions at the CCI is not just a matter of confirming or contradicting Sir Nikolaus Pevsner’s hypothesis, as we have just seen, it is interesting, however, to wonder if the action of the CCI was able to fulfil the objective assigned by that tutelary historian to exhibitions and to the work of art historians specialising in the discipline.

It must be admitted that in France no general history of design – excepting graphic design since the 2000s72 – has yet emerged from the discipline of art history. The only substantial and precise histories of industrial design we owe, indeed, to protagonists or “friends” of the CCI, namely Raymond Guidot73 and Jocelyn de Noblet,74 and they were belated. Guidot was a trained designer, worked at the CCI and curated numerous exhibitions, while de Noblet was a historian of technology and academic and founder of the Centre de Recherche sur la Culture Technique and of the journal Culture technique (1979-1995), which published, among others, the first texts by Bruno Latour and made available many essential source materials for the history of design culture, and could be described as a fellow travellers of the CCI.75 We may recall that the first authoritative history of graphic design was by Philip B. Megg and came even later.76 It is worth pointing out that certain dimensions of this question argue for a history of the discipline that might be written or described by its actual proponents, as has long been the case with architecture, and that belatedness does at least offer one advantage: it encourages us to consider historical modalities through multiple prisms. At a time when consumer society is being called into question, is a history by objects the most appropriate perspective? In this age of climate crises, of new contaminations, of a digital transfer whose implications for the discipline are complex, is it not more enlightening to consider the ideas – and sometimes the ideologies – that informed the conception of design, the technological or alternative systems considered by designers? Or the modalities of dissemination or construction of knowledge in the discipline?

The exhibitions at the CCI show us that they were vectors of investigation, in some cases concerning subjects that remain strikingly topical today: pandemics, renewable energies, alternative dwellings, inclusion of senior citizens or disabled persons, etc. The archives and research to which they gave rise afford a precise perspective on the sum of knowledge that, at the end of the 1990s constituted the culture and history of design in France, from its historical and ideological foretastes (modernity) (Marx or the American frontier of pioneers), to the notions of the day: the finished, open object, etc. If we still have to study the exhibitions through their reception, and more generally the CCI’s professional and non-professional audience, we also need to examine the interactions between the services and the particular role that they played, such as the possibly ambivalent role of the journal Traverses,77 and the disjunction between editorial conception and exhibition. For all that, we can say that, in terms both of devices and of the Anglo-American paternity of the discipline, the CCI and its exhibitions took Nikolaus Pevsner at his word.


  • Direction of the ligne : Catherine Geel, CRD – Ens Paris-Saclay
  • CRD – Ens Paris-Saclay : Claire Brunet, Éléonore Challine
  • Bibliothèque Kandinsky : Mica Gherghescu, Stéphanie Rivoire, Karine Bomel
  • Bibliothèque des Arts décoratifs : Stéphanie Rivoire, Karine Bomel
  • Problemata print : officeabc (Catherine Guiral et Brice Domingues)
  • ** Research engineer Problemata**: Marie Lejault
  • Researchers : Jeanne Bessy, Anaïs Bourcier, Lola Carrel, Estelle Chaillat, Noémie Chataigner, Marie-Lorraine Chiriacopol, Anne-Cécile Cochet, Léonard Faugeron, Talullah Frappier, Catherine Geel, Brigitte Gilardet, Élise Goutagny, Clémence Imbert, Émilie Jaguin, Marie Le Menes, Caroll Maréchal, Laurence Mauderli, Valentin Sanitas, Léonie Thiroux, Clément Vézon [Ens Paris-Saclay (CRD et DER), Esad Reims]
  • Thanks : Jean-Philipe Bonilli, Marie-Ange Brayer, Frédéric Migayrou, Françoise Jollant, Jean Charlier, François Barré, Dennis Crompton (Archigram), Sophie Virilio, François Confino, Claude Ricou, Marie-Laure Jousset, …. Nicolas Liucci-Goutnikov, Didier Schulmann

Exhibitions studied

Qu’est-ce que le design ?, 24 October - 31 December 1969

Pavillon de Marsan – Centre de création industrielle, musée des Arts décoratifs Curator : François Mathey, assisté de Yolande Amic Set designers : Joe Colombo, Charles Eames, Braun A.G, Verner Panton, Roger Tallon Catalogue : François Mathey with Yolande Amic. Texts: Henri Van Lier, Joe Colombo, Charles Eames, Fritz Eichler, Verner Panton, Roger Tallon. Paris : Arts décoratifs, 1969.

Olivetti. Formes et recherches, 19 November 1969 - 1 January 1970

Grande Nef – CCI, musée des Arts décoratifs Production : Département culturel, Département de la communication Olivetti Itinerancy Olivetti : Pavillon italien de la foire de Barcelone, Palacio de Cristal (Madrid), Wawerley Market Hall (Édinbourg), Euston Station (Londres), Allemagne, Prince Hotel (Tokyo) Project and display : Gae Aulenti with Hans von Klier Catalogue : Giovanni Giudici

L’idée et la forme : design en Grande-Bretagne, 1 April - 31 May 1971

Galerie Rivoli, Galerie du CCI – CCI, musée des Arts décoratifs Production : Council of Industrial Design Curators : Tim Rock, Edward Booth-Clibborn, Alan Cooper and Barry Mazur Set designers : Crosby/Fletcher/Forbes (réalisation & coordination) avec Archigram Architects, Michael Haynes, Lou Klein, James Meller et Edward Wright, Conran Design Group

L’espace collectif, ses signes, son mobilier, 3 December 1970 - 31 January 1971

Pavillon X des Halles de Baltard – CCI Production : CCI Curator : Margo Rouard Set designer : ??????? Catalogue : texts: Margo Rouard, Paris, UCAD, CCI, 1970, 48 p.

Design français**, 20 Octobre - 20 December 1971

Grande Nef – CCI, musée des Arts décoratifs Production : CCI Curator: : Set designer : Catalogue :

De l’objet à la ville. Design et vie quotidienne,

Production : CCI Curator : Set designer : Catalogue : dir ?, texts: ? Paris : CCI, CSCEI, 1973, 106 p.

Qu’est-ce qu’une campagne publicitaire ?

Itinerant exhibition that was not presented at the Centre Pompidou Itinerancy : Production : CCI Curator : Margo Rouard Set designer : Grapus Catalogue : text: Margo Rouard ? . Paris : CCI, 1975, 76 p.

Bunker Archéologie,10 December 1975 - 29 Febbruary 1976**

Galerie du CCI, musée des Arts décoratifs de Paris Production : CCI Curator and set designer : Paul Virilio Catalogue : Paris : Centre Georges Pompidou-CCI, 1975.

Archéologie de la ville, 2 Febbruary - 7 March 1977

Forum, Centre Georges-Pompidou Production : CCI Curator & set designer: Haus-Rucker-Co (Klaus Pinter, Carole Michels, François Confino, Catherine Addor) Sound: Giuseppe Sinopoli (IRCAM), Claude Ricou (Percussions de Strasbourg)

Femmes d’un jour, 31 January - 27 Febbruary 1977

Galerie d’actualité, Centre Georges-Pompidou Itinerancy March 1977 to March 1980 : 25 centres culturels et MJC en France Production: CCI Curator: Margo Rouard Catalogue: Gilles de Bure. Petit journal de la galerie d’actualités, January 1977, A2 double-sided leaflet in colour.

Ettore Sottsass Jr. De l’objet fini à la fin de l’objet, 21 October 1976 - 3 January 1977

Galerie du CCI, musée des Arts décoratifs Production: International Design Zentrum (Berlin) Itinerancy: IDZ (Berlin), musée Correr (Biennale internationale de Venise), CCI (Paris), Design-Center (Barcelone), Design-Center (Tel Aviv) puis aux États-Unis Curator: François Burkhardt Set designer: Ettore Sottsass Jr. Catalogue:

Design et Stratégie de l’Entreprise, 14 November 1979 - 14 January 1980

Galerie du CCI, Centre Georges-Pompidou Production: CCI Itinerancy: 17 locations planned. . March-November 1980 : Lycée d’enseignement professionnel d’Argentan, Maison des Jeunes et de la Culture d’Evreux, Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie de Bordeaux, université de Technologie de Compiègne, foyer des jeunes travailleurs de Rodez. 1982 : Lycée Carriat d’enseignement professionnel de Bourg-en-Bresse, etc. Curator: André Hatala The Director of the CCI: Jacques Mullender Catalogue: Jacques Mullender ( dir.). Design et Stratégie de l’Entreprise. Paris : Centre Georges-Pompidou – CCI, 1979.

Alternances urbaines, 9 May - 10 September 1979

Galerie d’actualité du CCI, Centre Georges-Pompidou Production: CCI Curator: Jean-Paul Pigeat Set designer: Catalogue: Jean-Paul PIGEAT (dir.). Texts: ???. Paris : Centre Georges-Pompidou – CCI, 1979.

L’Objet industriel, 26 March - 9 June 1980

Galerie d’actualité du CCI, niveau mezzanine, Centre Georges-Pompidou Production: CCI Itinerancy: 1980-1985 among others:Vénissieux, Houilles, Villeneuve d’Ascq, Centre culturel Salvador Allende à Neuilly-sur-Marne Commissaires : Hélène Larroche et Yan Tucny Set designer: ? Catalogue: Hélène LARROCHE and Yan TUCNY. L’Objet industriel en question. Texts: Abraham Moles, ??. Paris : Centre Georges-Pompidou – CCI, 1985.

Errants, nomades et voyageurs, 1980 ?

Galerie d’actualité du CCI, Centre Georges-Pompidou Production : CCI Commissaire : Jean-Paul Pigeat Scénographe Catalogue : dir ? , textes de . ville : édition, éditeur, année, nbre de pages

Paris-Moscou, 1900-1930, 31 May - 5 November1979

Grande Galerie, 5e étage, Centre Georges-Pompidou Production: MNAM – Centre Georges-Pompidou Curators: Pontus Hultén (dir.), Raymond Guidot (CCI) ??? Set designers: Catalogues: Coll., Paris-Moscou, 1900-1930. Texts: ?. Paris : Éditions du Centre Pompidou, 1979, 580 p. ; Petit Journal de « Paris-Moscou ». Paris : Éditions du Centre Pompidou, 1979, 27 p.

La mesure du temps, ???

Roof?, Centre Georges-Pompidou Production : CCI , INOVA (ministère de l’Industrie) Curator: Thierry Chaput Set designer: ? Catalogue:

Dessins et modèles déposés, 11 March - 8 June 1981

Galerie du CCI, niveau mezzanine, Centre Georges-Pompidou Itinerancy: [1981-1984: 12 locations out of Paris and Île-de-France]. 1981: in the regional documentation centres of INPI to Bordeaux, Marseille, Sophia-Antipolis, Lyon, Strasbourg. In 1982: Cholet, au Centre d’Affaires Mode et Industrie – Groupement régional de la chaussure des Pays de la Loire et à Saint-Étienne, salon Unninove. In 1983: Bibliothèque municipale, Cahors. In 1984: dans les Chambres de Commerce et d’Industrie de Nantes et du Mans, à Grenoble, AlpesExpo et à Houilles. Production: CCI, INPI, INOVA (ministère de l’Industrie) Curator: Jean-Pierre Bérard, assisté de Pascale Lacker (INPI) Collaboration: Françoise Jollant (CCI) Set designer: Atelier Denis Doria – CCI : Cécile Mihailovic, Nicole Toutcheff Then Director of CCI : Jacques Mullender Catalogue: Jean-Pierre BÉRARD (dir.). Texts: Claude Schnaidt, Georges Vianes, Gilles Y. Bertin, Pierre Fressonnet. Paris : Centre national d’art et de culture Georges-Pompidou, 1981, 50 p.

Au temps de l’espace, 18 May - 12 September 1983

Forum du Centre Georges-Pompidou Production : CCI Curator: Jean-Paul Pigeat Set designer: Catalogue:

Ne coupez pas ! , 29 June - 26 September 1983

Ground Floor, Centre Georges-Pompidou Production: CCI Curator: Marc Girard (with Claude Baltz, Jean-Marc Lepers, Alain Lelu, Marie Thonon) Set designer and graphic designers: Grafibus Itinerancy: une quarantaine d’espaces culturels en région Book in relation: Jean-Paul SIMON (ed.). Écrans pour tous ? Démocratie locale et nouvelles technologies de communication. Étude réalisée par l’ADELS (Association pour la démocratie et l’éducation locale et sociale). Texts: Michel Beneti and Jean-Paul Simon. graphic design: Christian Beneyton, Pierre Dusser. Paris : CCI Édition/Correspondance municipale, 1983, 98 p.

Textile du Nord : Culture et industrie, 8 Febbruary - 23 April 1984

Forum du Centre Georges-Pompidou, niveau -1 Production: CCI, Région Nord-Pas-de-Calais et avec le concours de l’ORCEP Curator: Jean-Paul Pigeat Set designer: Catalogue:

Textile. Créer avec l’industrie, 8 Febbruary - 7 May 1984

Salle de documentation du CCI (œuvres de Geneviève Dupeux), Centre Georges-Pompidou Production: CCI Curator: ??? Set designer: Geneviève Dupeux ?

Les Immatériaux, 8 March - 15 July 1985

Grande Galerie, niveau 5, Centre Georges-Pompidou Production: CCI, with: MNAM, IRCAM, BPI Curators: Jean-François Lyotard, Thierry Chaput Set designer: Philippe Délis Catalogue: Jean-François Lyotard (ed). Texts: ?. Paris : Éditions du Centre Pompidou, 1985, 263 p. + 63 p.

Jeu d’acier PIK et PLAK’, 31 January - 12 March 1990

Galerie des Brèves, Centre Georges-Pompidou Production: CCI, Atelier des Enfants, Sollac, PIKY, Direction régionale de l’Industrie du Nord-Pas-de-Calais Exhibition initiator: Délégation interministérielle à l’aménagement du territoire et à l’attractivité régionale du Nord-Pas-de-Calais Curators: Corinne Rozental, Cécile Mihailovic
Set designer: Bernard Fric, ASYMÉTRIE Designers involved: René Ach, Philippe Costard, Kohler+Rekow, Savinel & Roze, Vitrac Design Itinérance : Musée d’art contemporain de Dunkerque (Lieu d’art et action contemporaine de Dunkerque - LAAC), April 1990 Then Director of CCI: Dominique Bozo Catalogue: no catalogue

Design japonais : 1950-1995, 14 Febbruary - 29 April 1996

Forum, Centre Georges-Pompidou Production: Philadelphia Museum of Art Itinerancy: Philadelphia Museum of Art, Centre Georges-Pompidou (Paris), Kunsthalle (Düsseldorf), Triennale (Milan), Suntory Museum (Osaka) Academic Curators: Kathryn B. Hiesinger and Felice Fischer (Philadelphia Museum of Art) Curator: Marie-Laure Jousset (adaptation au Centre/CCI). Set designers: Kastumi Komagata (pour le Centre), Michel Antonpietri and Laurence Fontaine Catalogue: Kathryn B. HIESINGER et Felice FISCHER (dir.). Texts: Marie-Laure Jousset, Charlotte Perriand. Paris : Éditions du Centre Pompidou, 1996.

General Bibliography


BORDAZ, Robert. Le Centre Pompidou, une nouvelle culture. Paris : Ramsay, 1977.

CASSOU, Jean. Les Sources du xxe siècle. L’Art de 1884 à 1914 [Cat. expo.] Exposition du conseil de l’Europe. Paris : Grand Palais, 1960.

CHARNIERES - DE LAAGE, Élisabeth (de). Le Design au Centre de création industrielle. Genèse d’une collection au musée national d’Art moderne. Mémoire de Master, sous la direction de Pascale ??? et Pascal Ory. Paris 1-Sorbonne, 2006.

DUFRÊNE, Bernadette (dir.). Centre Pompidou. Trente ans d’histoire. Paris : Éditions du Centre Pompidou, 2007, p. 287.

DUFRÊNE, Bernadette. Art et médiatisation : le cas des grandes expositions inaugurales du Centre Georges-Pompidou (Paris-New York, Paris-Berlin, Paris-Moscou). Thèse de doctorat, Grenoble, 1998.

GILARDET, Brigitte. Réinventer le musée. François Mathey, un précurseur méconnu (1953-1985). Thèse en histoire. Dijon : Les presses du réel, coll. « Œuvres en sociétés », 2014.

IMBERT, Clémence. Œuvres ou documents ? Un siècle d’exposition du graphisme dans les musées d’art moderne de Paris, New York et Amsterdam (1895-1995). Thèse en sciences et technologies de l’art, Paris 8, 2017.

LAWLESS, Catherine. Le musée national d’Art moderne. Historique et mode d’emploi. Paris : Éditions du Centre Pompidou, 1986.

LAUXEROIS, Jean. L’Utopie Beaubourg vingt ans après. Paris : BPI – Centre Georges-Pompidou, 1996.

LEROY, Marie. Le phénomène Beaubourg. Paris : Syros, 1977.

LUSSY, Florence (de). Jean Cassou, 1897-1986. Un musée imaginé [Cat. expo.]. Paris : BNF, 1995.

LYOTARD, Jean-François (préf.). Le Centre de création industrielle. Paris : Éditions du Centre Pompidou, 1986.

MARÉCHAL, Caroll. La collection design graphique du MNAM-CCI. Genèse et perspectives d’une collection fantomatique (1969-2016). Mémoire de Master, sous la direction de Patricia Falguières et Valérie Tesnières. EHESS, Arts & Langages, 2016.

MOLLARD, Claude. Le Centre national d’art et de culture Georges-Pompidou ou l’innovation culturelle sur le plateau Beaubourg. Paris : Centre Georges-Pompidou, 1975.

MOLLARD, Claude. L’enjeu du Centre Georges-Pompidou. Paris : 10/18, 1976.

Coll. L’Utopie Beaubourg dix ans après, numéro spécial de la revue Esprit, février 1987.

“Il Musei a venire/The Museum to Come”. Entretien de Manolo de Giorgi avec Dominique Bozo, Jean-François Burckhardt, Jean-Hubert Martin, Domus, n° 711, décembre 1989.

  1. See Brigitte GILARDET. Réinventer le musée. François Mathey, un précurseur méconnu (1953–1985). Dijon: Les presses du réel, coll. “Œuvres en sociétés,” 2014. See “François Mathey et son équipe ou l’action méconnue des créateurs du CCI au musée des Arts décoratifs MAD”.↩︎

  2. Interview with Françoise Jollant, 12 March 2021.↩︎

  3. The UCAD/EPCB agreement of 1 July whereby the CCI was integrated into the Centre Pompidou organised the period of transition (1973–1976) during which the CCI offices were transferred from UCAD to the EPCB premises at 35, Bd Sébastopol (Archives C. Mollard). During this period the CCI was organised in four departments. On 1 January 1974 the budgetary resources of the CCI were completely integrated into the budget of the EPCB. On 3 November 1975, a letter from the President of the Republic (V. Giscard d’Estaing) stipulated an industrial design policy that would leverage, notably, the Centre Georges Pompidou and work extensively with industry. A decree of 27 January 1976 made the CCI one of the two departments at the Centre, the MNAM being the second (Archives CGP, fonds C. Mollard).↩︎

  4. The Design Council was one of the models for the CCI. It had developed a production information system informing the public about the different aspects of products and apparatus, especially English household appliances. The CCI adapted this and produced its own product index, initially written by hand (from 4,000 to 7,000 entries, according to François Mathey). This index was later computerised (Michel Millot “sold” the idea to François Barré), which occupied a sizeable team. In addition, at the CSCEI (Conseil Supérieur pour la Création Esthétique Industrielle), created at UCAD, Paul Reilly introduced English positions into the discussions. Interview with Françoise Jollant quoted above. See also Laurence MAUDERLI. "Wit and Drama. Paris 1971: L’idée et la forme – Le design en Grande-Bretagne.↩︎

  5. Paris is where the ICSID was registered in 1957 (it became the WDO – World Design Organisation in 2017), based on an idea put forward by Jacques Vienot in 1953, and a proposition made by Peter Kneebone some ten years later give rise in 1963 to ICOGRADA (the International Council of Graphic Design Associations). He represented France on this body from 1974. It is interesting to note that France was very much present and initiated things in the early stages, but that the English-speaking world later took over the organisations.↩︎

  6. See note 8, below.↩︎

  7. See Clémence IMBERT. Œuvres ou documents ? Un siècle d’exposition du graphisme dans les musées d’art moderne de Paris, New York et Amsterdam (1895–1995). Thesis in art technologies and sciences, supervised by Jean-Philippe Antoine & Catherine de Smet, Paris 8, 2017, p. 163–164.↩︎

  8. Description of photographic records of exhibitions at the CCI.↩︎

  9. ARTA, a strange computation service (see the article by Tallulah FRAPPIER: "Ne coupez pas ! (Please, Hold!) (29 June – 26 September 1983). Imbroglio on emerging technologies at the CCI." hyperlien à faire), the technical advisers and chargés de mission, the administrative services, public relations, technical resources, the Documentation (comprising the information processing section, the slide library and the library, open to the general public as well as specialists), the events department (including the gallery and touring shows), and the product design and social innovation department (formerly Public Authorities).↩︎

    1. production-exhibitions, publications and audio-visual; 2) design studies and research, new technologies, social innovation; 3) documentation-documentary research, library; 4) external relations-public relations and press, regional actions and associative networks, touring productions; 5) administration and technical resources.
  10. See Caroll MARÉCHAL. “Le Centre de création industrielle, de sa création à son annihilation (1968–1992). Retour sur les aventures d’un lieu singulier.”.↩︎

  11. Jean LAUXEROIS. Paris: BPI-Centre Georges Pompidou, 1996.↩︎

  12. And Bernadette DUFRESNE (ed.). Paris: Éditions du Centre Pompidou, 2007. Note that these studies were published by the institution itself.↩︎

  13. The book by Brigitte Gilardet quoted above was based on her thesis, supervised by Laurence Bertrand-Dorleac, Caroll MARÉCHAL. La collection design graphique du MNAM-CCI. Genèse et perspectives d’une collection fantomatique (1969–2016). MA thesis supervised by Patricia Falguières, EHESS, 2016 and Clémence IMBERT, op. cit.↩︎

  14. Exhibition curated by Jean Cassou at the Musée d’Art Moderne from November 1960 to January 1961. Nikolaus Pevsner participated in several ways. This was the sixth in a series of exhibitions begun in 1954 under the auspices of the Council of Europe around the idea of a European art history.↩︎

  15. Quoted by Émilie Oléron-Evans in Archives personnelles No. GP 2/11Bis.↩︎

  16. (↩︎

  17. (↩︎

  18. Archives E3/1/CCI (UCAD): minutes of the first meeting of the CCI Comité de Patronage on 19 February 1970. Also quoted by Claire LEYMONERIE. Des formes à consommer. Pensées et pratiques du design industriel en France (1945–1980), thesis supervised by Patrick Fridenson and Franck Cochoy, EHESS, 2010, p. 294.↩︎

  19. At the Centre Pompidou, Salle de Documentation du CCI (26 March 1980–5 May 1980). Exhibited: “new appliances and recipients for the cooking of food,” i.e., “a selection of appliances and recipients for the table and for cooking (chip maker, pressure cooker, fan oven, microwave oven, thermostatic rings, induction plates, sequential burner, etc.)” in order to help the public to “find its way among the forms and technologies, to choose in keeping with [its] eating habits, the objects and equipment needed to cook with.”↩︎

  20. At the Centre Pompidou, Salle de Documentation du CCI (16 January 1985–15 April 1985). Curator: Cécile Mihailovic. For many elderly persons, turning a doorhandle or a key in a lock or answering the telephone can become difficult. The exhibition presented a selection of products facilitating daily life for elderly persons and seventeen projects distinguished in two competitions organised by the Ministry for Social Affairs and National Solidarity and the Centre de Création Industrielle in 1983 and 1984.↩︎

  21. See Estelle CHAILLAT. “1979. Le mystère des kiosques à affiches de Paris-Moscou. Dispositifs de présentation et esprit Agitprop.”.↩︎

  22. The collection includes colour slides, negatives and black-and-white and colour prints.↩︎

  23. Clémence IMBERT. Œuvres ou documents ?, op. cit., p. 232–233.↩︎

  24. Master’s research programme M2R, Ens Paris-Saclay, Paris-Tech Telecom, Ensci-Les Ateliers with the Bibliothèque de Documentation Kandinsky MNAM/CCI.↩︎

  25. Study day on 30 January 2018 with Claire Brunet, Estelle Chaillat, Éléonore Challine, Jérôme Glicenstein, Laure Garreau, Catherine Geel, Mica Gherghescu, officeabc (Brice Domingues and Catherine Guiral) and Emmanuel Guy.↩︎

  26. See Clémence IMBERT. “De la ville à l’objet. Les aventures du graphisme dans les expositions du CCI”.↩︎

  27. (1924–2006) Swedish art historian, innovative director of the Moderna Museet in Stockholm from 1959, he became director of the collections at MNAM from 1973 to 1981 and therefore worked on the proto- and actual Centre Georges Pompidou. He is credited with an ambitious exhibition policy.↩︎

  28. Estelle CHAILLAT, op. cit. and Clémence Imbert, op. cit., online.↩︎

  29. See Léonie THIROUX. “L’Objet industriel (1980–1985) : une exposition au long/court.”↩︎

  30. See Tallulah FRAPPIER,op. cit.↩︎

  31. Clémence IMBERT, op. cit.↩︎

  32. See Anne-Cécile COCHET. “Desseins institutionnels pour le design : Dessins et modèles déposés (11 mars – 8 juin 1981), une étrange exposition…”.↩︎

  33. See Jeanne BESSY. “Textiles du Nord : Culture et Industrie au CCI. Exposer l’industrie textile en 1984, la survie d’un secteur en crise.”.↩︎

  34. See Émilie JAGUIN. “Un journaliste au musée (1978–1986) : Jean-Paul Pigeat et le Centre de création industrielle : exposer la société” and the exhibitions Alternances urbaines (1979), Errants, nomades et voyageurs (1980).↩︎

  35. See Talullah FRAPPIER, op. cit.↩︎

  36. See Clément VÉZON. “Les sorties de route d’une exposition convenue au CCI: La mesure du temps (1979).”.↩︎

  37. See Marie-Lorraine CHIRIACOPOL. “Au temps de l’espace, une exposition du CCI pour célébrer l’année des télécommunications (1983).”↩︎

  38. Comparison with the various exhibitions studied: see Élise GOUTAGNY. “Femmes d’un jour, des vertus du livre d’or (1977)” ; Sarah DULAC. “Promouvoir le design (au sein) de l’entreprise. Une mutation de l’exposition pédagogique et itinérante en France, de 1979 à 2016”; or again Léonie THIROUX, op. cit., show the complexity and mixed success of this perspective. It is confirmed in the technical file for touring (p. 27) located and quoted by Clémence IMBERT, op. cit., p. 334.↩︎

  39. See Anaïs BOURSIER. “Concevoir, exposer et vendre : un jeu d’enfant pour le musée ? Le CCI, Piky et l’Atelier des enfants du Centre Pompidou (1988–2014).”.↩︎

  40. See Marie LE MENES. “Archéologie de la ville (1977) et l’ouverture du Centre national d’art et de culture Georges Pompidou : collaboration spectaculaire et péripéties scénographiques pour une ambition inaugurale.”.↩︎

  41. Laurence MAUDERLI, op. cit.↩︎

  42. See Lola CARREL. “De l’objet fini à la fin de l’objet (1976–1977) : les conceptions d’Ettore Sottsass au CCI.”.↩︎

  43. See Valentin SANITAS. “Bunker Archéologie (1976) : l’espace mis en page.”.↩︎

  44. See the articles by Noémie CHATAIGNIER et Léonard FAUGERON. “Les Immatériaux: Postmodern Feeling and Undefined Spaces” and Les Immatériaux in the Labyrinth of Hanging Screens, Grids, Paths, Exhibition Design”.↩︎

  45. At the Musée des Arts Décoratifs (8 January–3 March 1975).↩︎

  46. See the text “Design as Commentary” and the images of the installation by Gaetano Pesce, in Emilio EMBASZ (ed.). Italy: The New Domestic Landscape. Achievements and Problems of Italian Design [exhib. cat.]. New York/Florence: The Museum of Modern Art, Centro Di, 1972, p. 212–222.↩︎

  47. At the Centre Georges Pompidou, Centre d’Information du CCI (1–27 February 1989).↩︎

  48. Ezio MANZINI. La matière de l’invention [1986]. Translated from the Italian by Adriana Pila and Jacques Demarq. Paris: CCI, Centre George Pompidou, coll. “Inventaire,” 1989. The book presents research undertaken by the Domus Academy with the Montedison laboratories into the cultural mutations induced by new materials in technology. Alberto Meda and Denis Sanachiara contributed to the work. La materia dell’invenzione was published under the name of Ezio Manzini, director of the school in Milan.↩︎

  49. At the Centre Américain de Paris (18 November 1975 – 12 January 1976).↩︎

  50. At the Centre Pompidou, Galerie du CCI (24 March – 29 May 1989). Curators: François Burckhardt, then director of the CCI, and Raymond Guidot. Exhibition design: Achille Castiglioni. The exhibition anticipated or presented the CCI’s project of constituting a collection of key objects covering the second half of the twentieth century, from 1945 to the present. Works of art from the Musée National d’Art Moderne were juxtaposed with the Centre de Création Industrielle collection. There was an audio-visual simulation of the display sequences with actual size displays of some of the most significant contemporary objects and artworks.↩︎

  51. At the Musée des Arts Décoratifs (18 November 1976–31 January 1977). Curator: Chantal Béret. It evoked the products designed by Moholy-Nagy which are little known in France today, the camouflage courses at the New Bauhaus, etc.↩︎

  52. At the Musée des Arts Décoratifs (14 January–29 March 1976). Curators: Karl Mang (1922–2015) and Wend Fischer.↩︎

  53. Exhibition at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs (9 April–8 June 1975). Curator: Brigitte Klesse.↩︎

  54. At the Centre Pompidou, Galerie du CCI (24 February–23 May 1988). Curator: Marie-Laure Jousset.↩︎

  55. At the Centre Pompidou, Galerie du CCI, mezzanine (11 March–8 June 1981). Curator: Thierry Chaput.↩︎

  56. At the Musée des Arts Décoratifs (14 May – 27 September 1976). Curator: Raymond Guidot.↩︎

  57. Laurence MAUDERLI, op. cit.↩︎

  58. Qu’est-ce que le design ? Musée des Arts Décoratifs (24 October–31 December 1969).↩︎

  59. At the Centre Pompidou, Forum Bas (8 November 1995–12 January 1996).↩︎

  60. At the Centre Pompidou, Forum Bas (20 October 1993–21 January 1994).↩︎

  61. Images d’utilité publique, Galerie d’Information du CCI (3 February–28 March 1988).↩︎

  62. L’Image des Mots, Galerie du CCI (11 September–4 November 1985).↩︎

  63. Ibidem.↩︎

  64. Marie LE MENES, op. cit.↩︎

  65. Marie LE MENES, ibid., FRAPPIER, op. cit.↩︎

  66. Émilie JAGUIN, op. cit.↩︎

  67. See Tony CÔME. L’institut de l’Environnement : une école décloisonnée. Urbanisme, architecture, design, communication. Paris: B42, 2017.↩︎

  68. In a conversation with the author, 12 March 2021.↩︎

  69. Clémence IMBERT. Œuvres ou document ?, op. cit., p. 186.↩︎

  70. Musée des Arts Décoratifs (22 November 1972–5 March 1973). Curator: Raymond Guidot.↩︎

  71. Notable exceptions are Roxane JOUBERT. Graphisme, typographie, histoire. Paris: Flammarion, 2000; and, focusing more on France, Michel WLASSIKOFF. Histoire du graphisme en France. Paris: Les Arts Décoratifs/Dominique Carré, 2005 (revised, augmented edition: 2021).↩︎

  72. Histoire du design 1940–2000 [1994]. Paris: Hazan, 2000.↩︎

  73. Design, introduction à l’histoire de l’évolution des formes industrielles de 1820 à aujourd’hui. Paris: Stock-Chêne, 1974.↩︎

  74. See also Jacques PERRIAULT. “‘Culture technique’. Éléments pour l’histoire d’une décennie singulière 1975–1985,” Cahiers de médiologie, no. 2, 1998, p. 197–214. “Culture technique” is used here as an expression and does not refer just to the journal, but to a more general relation on the part of France to technical questions. Instructive.↩︎

  75. A History of Graphic Design. New York: Van Nostrand Rheinold Company Inc., 1983.↩︎

  76. See Catherine GEEL. “Idéations, outils et théorie dans un ciel cynique,” in Écrits d’Alessandro Mendini. Dijon: Les presses du réel, 2014, p. 159–161, and Louis PINTO. “Déconstruire Beaubourg. Art politique et architecture,” in Genèses 6, 1991, p. 105-106.↩︎